Was met with a rather hostile reaction from a moderator, locking the entire question down so that only they could edit it. And while this moderator was rather rude, I am completely ignoring that and having an issue with the edit made. The edit says the name is a translation but it isn't, if anything it is an abbreviation. Can this be changed?
I clarified further with an additional edit.
The post was locked for one hour because:
This post has been locked due to the high amount of off-topic comments generated. For extended discussions, please use chat.
which I did because there were over two dozen comments that continued to be off topic. I encourage you to read through this documentation in the help center around comments. Pretty much all of this section is relevant, so I won't quote them here.
Also, naming and shaming an employee who is a junior to you? You can't possibly not have expected those comments to not get deleted.
I've just reviewed the revision history and the 64 (!) deleted comments (the vast majority of them not constructive or worse), and I don't see anything "hostile" or "rather rude" from moderators. Actually, given the attitudes expressed in some of the comments, including publishing the coworker's real name, I think enderland showed great restraint.
Locks are a standard Stack Exchange feature, used rarely but designed to interrupt something bad that is in progress. A comment lock is appropriate when comments have developed a severe case of "not what comments are for". Locks usually expire in an hour (as in this case) or a day. The lock notice explains the reason for the lock.
Moderators can edit locked posts. In this case a moderator edited the post to address an issue that was the source of a lot of the non-constructive comments. I don't see how that edit could have violated the intentions of an asker who wanted to solve a problem, but I can see how it might frustrate people who wanted to gawk at the coworker's expense.
You're apparently upset over one word, "translation", and enderland fixed that, within five minutes of your post, to say "slang" instead. Next time, consider just asking for the edit you want instead of jumping to accusations of moderator abuse; it'll be much more constructive and productive.