I've actually even combined upvote + vtc on some question. They measure two different things in my opinion.
Voting on the question is about the quality of the question.
I upvote questions that are clear, contain all the required details, have the right tags and show that the asker has taken the time to think about their question and what we might need to answer it. Even if the question turns out to be off-topic.
I downvote questions that are unclear, contain too few or irrelevant details, have terrible spelling/grammar (of the "didn't proofread" kind, not the "bad at English" kind) or otherwise show that the asker has not taken the time to think about their question.
Voting to close is about whether the question is a good fit for this site's goal.
I vote to close questions that either need some work to be answerable or are not a good fit for the site. Those of the first kind hopefully will get the needed work and be reopened, while the latter probably will be removed later.
But in both cases, even when the question is closed, I feel that a user who put in effort to help us help them by investing the effort to make a good question deserves an upvote for it. In the end, we want users to post good questions and that means teaching them what a good question looks like and where to post it.