In general, it is worth keeping in mind that you (and any registered user, even with low reputation) can indeed see deleted questions they answered. This is a part (or you may call it side effect) of a feature allowing all registered users see all of their own deleted questions and answers.
This feature is implemented in such a way that along with your deleted answer system also shows you the question you answered, even if it is deleted (which makes pretty good sense if you think of it).
I just checked this with my own deleted answers here at TWP meta and system indeed works as described above. I got to answers tab in my profile, clicked the link "Deleted answers" and got to one of my answers in a deleted question. I could see the question, along with details on who and when deleted it.
Worth noting that if you have less than 10K reputation, system will only show you the question and your answer - it won't show answers from other users (which also makes sense if you think of it).
Seeing deleted question you answered can be enough to find out reason for deletion in many simple cases.
For example, if it was deleted by votes from high rep users, system will show you who voted. Or if the question was automatically removed by automated cleanup process (aka "roomba") it will be labeled as deleted by Comminity bot. In simpler cases of trolling you can find out by more carefully re-reading the question or comments.
As explained in other answers though, sometimes this may be not enough and you may need to ask for further explanation at meta providing link to specific question that confused you. Moderators and 10K users will be able to see this deleted question and provide more insight.